Morinda lucida, a tropical West Africa rainforest tree also called Brimstone tree has been claimed to have medicinal properties including anti-diarrheal. This study is therefore aimed at evaluating the anti-diarrheal properties of the leaf and fruit extracts of this plant in albino Wistar rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, and anthraquinones. Acute toxicity test on both extracts showed non toxicity at 5000mg/kg. In the anti-diarrheal examination, diarrhea-induced albino Wistar rats were administered with different concentrations (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg and 60mg/kg) of aqueous extracts of the leaf and fruit ofMorinda lucida, and there was a significant reduction in faecal spot in a dose dependent manner. The 20mg/kg leaf extract group had a reduced faecal spot of 9.33±0.88 (diarrhealfreq.) over a 6 hourly - three days treatment, while the 60mg/kg leaf extract group reduced the faecal spot to 1.00±0.41 (diarrhealfreq.). A similar trend was seen in the rats treated with the fruit extract of the plant. No significant difference was observed in the extracts groups and the positive control group but there was significant difference between the extracts group and the negative control group. It could thus, be deduced that Morinda lucida leaf and fruit can be used in the effective management and treatment of diarrhea. This work, which seems to justify the traditional use of Morinda lucida in treatment of diarrhea may also be useful in managing diarrhea in ebola patients.
This study seeks to investigate in a rat model the effect of vitamin E following reperfusion injury/testicular injury. Twenty (20) Wistar male rats weighing between 100-150g ranging in age from 4-7 weeks were used for this study and were grouped into five groups of four rats each. Group one was administered with intramuscular (IM) administration of vitamin E (200mg/kg bw) and undergone testicular torsion with reperfusion for an hour, group two rats had concurrent administration of vitamin E (200mg/kg bw) followed by testicular torsion with reperfusion for an hour, while group three undergone torsion and was treated with vitamin E (200mg/kg bw) after an hour of testicular torsion at 7200 clockwise rotation. Group four undergone testicular torsion for an hour after which detortion was done and reperfusion was allowed for another one hour. While group five served as the control rats. At the end of the experiment testes of all the treated rats were exposed and semen was obtained for sperm characteristics (sperm motility and count). The results showed that following testicular torsion, sperm motility was reduced significantly while sperm count was unaffected. Intramuscular administration of vitamin E following torsion showed insignificant decrease (p>0.05) in sperm function.
Honey samples have been characterized in different parts of the world and have showed to possess healing potentials with health promoting capacity. The microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of honey samples from southwest zone of Nigeria were studied. The isolated micro-organisms were bacteria, Enterobacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes); Pseudomonas Spp, (Pseudomonas pudida, pseudomonas cepacia, pseudomonas fluorescens, pseudomonas chlororaphis); Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus Spp (S. saprophyticus, S. aureus); Aeromonas hydrophilia and fungi, Aspergillus Spp and Candida Spp. The physico-chemical analysis showed that pH of honey samples ranged from 5.00-5.50, while the viscosity ranged from 48.60-89.50 at 200C. The ranged obtained for other parameters were 0.471-0.635for specific gravity; 62.10-77.80 for percentage total reducing sugar; 18.75-29.30 for percentage moisture content; while the range for percentage mineral contents for calcium and potassium were 1.11-3.18 and 1.30-3.80 respectively. Growths were obtained on almost all media used, with the microbial load of Coliform ranging from 1.2-7.2x101, while the heterotrophic count ranged from 0.8-5.4x101. The count of Salmonella Shigella Agar (SSA) ranged from 0.2-3.6x101 while the yeast-mould count ranged from 0.2-6.0x101. Hazard analysis of the products and processing of honey showed the occurrence of numbers of microbial contaminants could be due to contamination from secondary sources (dust, wind, processing equipment or materials, handlers, processing room or from the environmental sources (storage room, marketing environment and collection environment (farm). The antibiotic sensitivity testing of the isolates showed that a number of the bacteria isolates were resistant to antibiotics with the number of such resistance ranging from 3-8 antibiotics
The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Xylopia aethiopica stem bark (XASB) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in sprague dawley rats. Experimental rats were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1: served as the control rats, Group 2: was administered with CCl4 only in groundnut oil (1:1) at a dose of 3 ml/kg b.wt by single intraperitoneal administration. Group 3: was administered with extract of X. aethopica + CCl4 ( 250 mg/kg b.wt/day) , Group 4: was treated with extract of X. aethiopica + CCl4 ( 500 mg/kg b.wt/day).Serum alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels 24 hrs after CCl4 administration decreased significantly (p≤0.05) in rats pretreated with X. aethiopica than in CCl4-treated rat only. Total serum bilirubin also showed a remarkable decrease in rats pretreated with xylopia aethiopica when compared to those administered with CCl4 alone. The activities of GST and CAT in liver tissues were increased in the rats pretreated with X. aethiopica compared with CCl4 alone. Lipid peroxidation expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in rats pretreated with X. aethiopica compared with CCl4 treated rat. However, the rats pretreated with X. aethiopica showed significant improvements in the cytoarchitecture of rat liver. The results suggested that aqueous extract of X. aethopica could palliate the liver injuries perhaps by its antioxidative effect, hence eliminating the deleterious effect of toxic metabolites from the CCl4.
Purpose: Dichlorvos (DDVP) causes toxicity in animals including humans. Alstonia boonei stem bark is widely used as a culinary medicine in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, possessing a number of pharmacological properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effectof Alstonia boonei (AB) against dichlorvos induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats. Methods: Dichlorvos (50 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered in wistar rats for 14 days followed by the treatment of Alstonia boonei (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Changes in the kidney biochemical marker namely, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, and creatinine in the serum were estimated. Histological examinations of the kidney were monitored. Results: Exposure to dichlorvo slowered activities of kidney antioxidants, while it increased LPO levels. Levels of all disrupted parameters were alleviated by co-administration of AB extract. The malondialdehyde concentration of the rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weights of the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) when compared with the untreated dichlorvos rats. But the creatinine concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05) when 200 and 400 mg/kg body weights of the extract of the treated dichlorvos animals were compared with the dichlorvos control. Furthermore, histological alterations in kidney were observedin dichlorvos untreated rats and were ameliorated in dichlorvos-induced treated rats with Alstonia boonei. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results indicated that dichlorvos showed a protective effect on dichlorvos induced nephrotoxicity.
Objective: This study was to evaluate the effect of Vitamin C on the histology and histochemistry of the prefrontal cortex of ethanol-induced rats. Methods: Male Sprague- Dawley rats were used for the study. Ethical approval was obtained from the Universityís ethical committee. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. Rats in group A= free access to normal saline. Rats in group B= treated with 4.25 ml ethanol. Rats in group C= treated with 100 mg/kg Vit. C. Rats in group D= pre-treated with 100 mg/kg Vit. C followed by 4.25 ml ethanol. Rats in group E=co-treated with 100 mg/kg of Vit. C and 4.25ml ethanol. Rats in group F=post-treated with 4.25ml ethanol followed by 100 mg/kg Vit.C. 24hrs after the last administration, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation: the fraction of the brain for tissue histochemistry was fixed in formol calcium and later processed for Heamotoxylin and Eosin with Cresyl fast violent staining techniques and the other fraction meant for enzyme and/or marker histochemistry was processed accordingly for some neurochemical indices for oxidative stress. Results: The markers of oxidative stress were statistically increased in the rats in group D, E and F compared with the rats in group B. There is a significant reduction of TBARS when compared with ethanol induced group (group B). The histological profile of the prefrontal cortex of rats in group A and C were preserved while that of the rats in group B displayed distorted cytoarchitecture profile with a marked increase in apoptotic bodies, lateral deviation of neurons and a marked increase in the activities of oxidative markers.
The prophylactic effect of ethanolic extract of Alstonia boonei(AB) stem bark on(2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate)DDVP-induced oxidative damage in male albino rats’ liver was investigated. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, DDVP and treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, AB, (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 21th days before exposure to DDVP. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were then determined in the liver and heart alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. Results indicate that DDVP-induced rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart when compared to controls. Treatment with AB at 200 and 400mg/kg caused a significant reduction in relative weight of the organs. In DDVP-induced rats, serum ALT and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased. Furthermore, histological alteration in the liver and aorta were observed in DDVP untreated rats and were ameliorated in DDVP-induced treated rats with AB. In conclusion, the extract possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of DDVP.
The problems associated with drinking water encountered in some parts of Nigeria have created a public Health concern. Governments that are unserious about provision of safe drinking water are liable to experience outbreak of waterborne diseases. Nigeria is one of the countries suffering from the crippling burden of water related diseases. The common diseases of drinking water in Nigeria include Cholera, Dracunculiasis, Hepatitis, Typhoid and Filariasis. In this research study, the profile of water related diseases in Nigeria from 2002-2008 was considered. This work was carried out with a view to assessing the successes recorded and problem encountered by governments: analyze the trend and spartial dimension of these diseases in Nigeria and to suggest necessary recommendations for proper management. Data were got from National Bureau of Statistics, Abuja (NBS). Microsoft excel was employed in analyzing the data. From the result obtained, it was revealed that typhoid ranked the highest, followed by cholera, hepatitis and dracucunliasis. Based on the problems facing Nigeria, it is strongly recommended that ministries of water resources and environment at both state and federal levels take the following steps: organize sensitization programmes addressing waterborne diseases, work closely with world health organization (WHO) and other health bodies to provide direct necessary support to Nigerian government and mitigate unsafe drinking water and waterborne diseases in Nigeria.
Cyanogen contents of seven most consumed cassava based food products in Nasarawa state were evaluated using the alkaline picrate method. These products were subjected to different processing methods such as peeling, washing, grating, fermentation, drying/dewatering, milling/pulvering and frying. The analyses showed reduction in cyanogens contents ranging from 56.33% to 89.58% compare to raw cassava tubers from which they were all produced. These results also showed that cassava processing methods in which fermentation is involved in the multistep processing stages greatly reduced cyanogen contents of the cassava. However, these processing methods did not remove all the cyanogen from the cassava products but reduced it below 10 ppm, recommended by the World Health Organization as safe limit, suggesting that the cassava underwent proper processing to produce safe products. Consumption of these products will not lead to the lethal dose of 35 mg hydrocyanic acid per kg body weight reported by some authors, hence marketing and consumption of these products should be promoted and efforts made to improve the processing methods to further reduce the cyanogen contents of the products.
The potassium bromate and hydrocyanic acid contents in commonly consumed fourteen loaves of bread and four most popular wheat flour brands among the bakers in Karu local government of Nasarawa state, Nigeria were assessed for potassium bromate and hydrocyanic acid contents. Potassium bromate in bread samples analyzed ranged between 0.5μg/g to 8.4μg/g and 0.83μg/g to 1.42μg/g in wheat flour samples. The hydrocyanic acid contents of the bread and wheat flour samples analyzed ranged between 1.510 to 3.676 mg/1000g and 0.706 to 1.498 mg/1000g sample respectively. These results implied that all the loaves of bread and wheat flour brands analysed contained potassium bromate in high quantity above safe level for human consumption and various amount of hydrocyanic acid which however, will not lead to the lethal dose of 35 mg hydrocyanic acid per kg body weight but there is need for continuous surveillance and enforcement of the ban on the use of potassium bromate in baking industry in this study area by NAFDAC.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a food additive, commonly consumed as a flavor enhancer. However, both animal models and human clinical reports have established its harmful effects. This work was carried out to study the effects of monosodium glutamate on blood thrombocytes, coagulation and bleeding time in adult male rats. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1 serves as the control group; group 2 was treated with 13.28g/kg bw of MSG (0.88%); group 3 was treated with 6.64g/kg bw of MSG (0.44%); group 4 was treated with 4.40g/kg bw of MSG (0.29%) for a period of 14 days respectively. Blood was taken via cardiac puncture for thrombocytes count, clotting and bleeding time were also taken. The results showed that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the number of platelets, bleeding time and clotting time in rats treated with 13.28g/kg bw of MSG compared with their control counterpart which are indicative of thrombocytopenia and water retention.
Aims: This study aims at investigating possible means of reducing cyanide toxicity by blocking NMDA R1 via ketamine (an NMDA R1 antagonist). This is to provide a template for quick arrest of cyanide toxicity in neurons under oxygen deprived condition. Place and Duration of Study: Bingham University, Department of Anatomy, Karu, Nigeria. The duration of the study was100 minutes. Methodology: Freshly harvested cortical tissue blocks were perfused in accessory cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) containing all the necessary salts and glucose. The cultures were treated with ACSF (Control), ACSF+KCN (potassium cyanide), ACSF+KCN+Ketamine and ACSF+Ketamine for a total duration of 100 minutes at 37ºC. Results: The Ketamine had a protective and reversal effects on the tissues both for oxygen deprivation and cyanide toxicity, The cells in tissues treated with ACSF+KCN+Ketamine showed normal appearance of cell body and axonal projections, the cells treated with ACSF+Ketamine showed fewer degenerating cells compared to those treated with cyanide. Conclusion: Ketamine, an NMDA R1 antagonist is neuroprotective against the toxicity of cyanide.
This study was carried out to evaluate the possible protective effects of garlic extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1 serves as diabetic control; group 2 served as normal control; group 3 received garlic extract seven days before alloxan induction and 14 days after the induction while the last group received normal saline before induction and garlic extract after induction. The blood glucose levels of the rats were determined before the treatment and at regular interval till the end of the study. The result obtained showed that pre-administration of garlic extract before alloxan induction prevents the elevation of blood glucose in alloxan induced rats.